The emergence, development and standardization of

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The production, development and standardization of information carrier -- characters

printing is a reproduction technique. Its reproduction content and objects are no more than words and images, especially the reproduction of words, especially in ancient China. Therefore, the production, development and standardization of characters are crucial to the invention and improvement of printing

In human history, the invention of any technology, especially major technology, depends on the social demand and material conditions. Printing is no exception. The reality is that the invention of printing depends on the demand of the society for the transfer and reproduction of printing in terms of culture and life, and the realization of this demand is based on the production, development and standardization of words, as well as the availability of printing raw materials. In other words, if there is no production, development and standardization of words as the reproduction object of printing, although people need printing, and although printing can be applied by friction and wear testing machines in the fabric field, the improvement and development of printing is difficult and slow. It is the production, development and standardization of characters that lead to the demand of society for the reproduction of printing and provide the reproduction object. The birth and development of writing and printing have an indissoluble bond of mutual promotion and restriction

Chinese characters are separated and transformed from pictures. These early words and pictures were created by people in the long-term production practice for the needs of recording and disseminating information and exchanging ideas. There is a natural and inevitable evolution process here. When we discuss the origin of characters, we will naturally get involved in the original recording methods of recording and exchanging ideas that initially led to the creation of characters, starting from tying ropes, inscriptions and pictorial characters

At the beginning of human society, the productivity was extremely low. For the sake of survival, people had to unite and use primitive and crude production tools to fight against nature. In the struggle, language was born in order to exchange ideas and transmit information. But language is fleeting. It can neither be preserved nor transmitted to a distant place. For some information that needs to be preserved and transmitted to a distant place, it is not possible to rely solely on the memory of the human brain. Therefore, the original recording method - "Celanese and southwire introduced this kind of light composite wire knot recording" and "deed recording" at the beginning of this year came into being

1. Tying ropes to record events

before the production of words, people used various methods of recording events in order to help memory, among which tying ropes and inscriptions were mostly used. There are many records about knot rope in Chinese ancient books. In the book of changes, a book written during the Warring States period BC, it is said that "in ancient times, people ruled by tying ropes, and later sages changed their deeds." Zheng Xuan, a man of the Han Dynasty, also said in his notes to the book of changes: "in ancient times, there were no words, and tying ropes was about. When things were big, they tied ropes; when things were small, they tied ropes." Li Dingzuo quoted the book of changes from the book of changes, which also said: "in ancient times, there were no words. There was an agreement to swear. The matter was big, the rope was big, the matter was small, and the rope was small. The number of knots depended on the number of things, and each person held it to test it, which was also enough to govern each other." This is about tying rope as a covenant, which is quite clear and specific

2. Deeds recording

the purpose of deeds is mainly to record numbers. Liu Xi of the Han Dynasty said in his book "Shi Ming Shi Shu Qi": "Qi is engraved and its number is engraved." Clearly explain that the deed is the carving, and the purpose of the carving is to help remember the number. Because when people enter into a contractual relationship, the number is the most important and the most likely factor to cause disputes. Therefore, people use the method of deed carving to carve numbers on bamboo or wood chips with certain lines as symbols, as the "contract" between both parties. This is the ancient "contract". Later, people separated the contract from the middle and divided it into two halves, with each party holding one half, based on the coincidence of the two. As for the ancient deed carving, Liezi Shuo Fu recorded a story: a man in the Song Dynasty found a deed lost by others on the way. "When he got home, he hid the deed and secretly counted the teeth carved on the deed. He thought that the teeth represented a lot of money. He was very happy and couldn't help saying to his neighbor," I'll be rich soon. " This story shows that the ancient deeds were engraved with numbers, which were mainly used as vouchers for debts. The figure is the bone deed of the Yangshao period site unearthed in zhoujiazhai, Xining County, Gansu Province

figure the figure of bone deeds unearthed in zhoujiazhai figure the Inca people in Peru tie ropes to record events figure tying ropes to record events, inscriptions to record events, and other similar recording methods, which are available to different nationalities all over the world. Even after the Song Dynasty in China, people in the South still tied ropes to record events. Peru in South America is especially famous. Some ethnic groups, using the color and knot method of the rope, can also accurately write down some things. The picture is a knot used by Inca people in Peru to record events

as an original method of recording events, tying rope for recording events, whether it is tied with a rope or crossed horizontally or vertically with multiple ropes, in the final analysis, it is just a simple concept to express and record numbers or directions, and it is an ideographic form. It can be regarded as a gestation stage before the production of characters, but it can not evolve into characters, let alone the production of characters. Because it can only help people remember certain things, but can not exchange ideas. It does not have the attribute of language communication and recording. Therefore, it is impossible to make notes by tying ropes into words

3. Pictorial writing

tying rope and inscriptions are, after all, primitive, very simple and rough methods of recording events, with small scope and poor accuracy. People have to use some other methods, such as pictures, to help them remember and express their thoughts. Painting led to the production of words. In Chinese philology, Mr. tanglan said: "the production of characters is very natural. People in the Paleolithic age tens of thousands of years ago already had good paintings. These paintings are mostly animals and human figures, which is the precursor of characters." However, pictures play the role of words and can be transformed into words only after "having a more common and extensive language". For example, only at this time, when someone draws a tiger, will everyone call it "tiger"; After drawing an elephant, people will call it "elephant" when they see it. Over time, it became common practice for people to use pictures like "tiger" and "elephant" between pictures and words. As time goes on, there are more and more such pictures, and they are not so realistic. Such pictures gradually shift towards the text direction, which eventually leads to separation from the pictures. In this way, the picture is divided into the original realistic picture and the picture text that becomes the character symbol. Pictographic characters were further developed into pictographs. As the Chinese philology said, "words are based on pictures. At first, words were pictures that can be read, but pictures can not be read. Later, words and pictures gradually diverged, and the difference became obvious. Words are no longer pictures, but written." "The writing technology does not need realistic description, as long as the characteristics are written out, which is generally good, so that people can understand it." This is the original text

about the origin of characters, there are many legends about Cangjie's writing in the Warring States period, which can be found in many historical records. For example, "Xunzi Jiegai" said: "there are many good books, but Cangjie only preaches one." According to Lu's spring and Autumn Annals, Emperor shoupian, "Xi Zhong wrote a chariot and Cangjie wrote a Book..." It is said that Chinese characters were created by Cangjie

about Cangjie's creation of characters, there is a legend in history that is similar to a myth. It says that Cangjie was the historian of the Yellow Emperor. After the Yellow Emperor unified China, he felt that the method of tying ropes to record events was far from meeting the requirements, so he ordered his historian Cangjie to find a way to create characters. So Cangjie built a house and lived on a high platform on the South Bank of the Gushui river at that time, and devoted himself to making characters. However, he thought hard for a long time and failed to produce words. Coincidentally, one day, when Cangjie was thinking, he saw a phoenix flying from the sky. Something in his mouth fell down and fell right in front of Cangjie. Cangjie picked it up and saw a hoof print on it. But Cangjie could not recognize the hoof print of any beast. He asked a hunter who happened to come. The hunter looked at the

and said, "this is the hoof print of a dog. It is different from the hoof print of other animals. I can see the hoof print of other animals." Cangjie was inspired by what the hunter said. He thought that all things have their own characteristics. If we can grasp the characteristics of things and draw pictures, we can understand them. Isn't that a word? From then on, Cangjie carefully observed the characteristics of various things, such as the sun, moon, stars, clouds, mountains, rivers, lakes, seas, as well as various birds, animals, and applied utensils. According to their characteristics, he drew graphics and created many pictographs. Over time, Cangjie created more characters. Cangjie presented these hieroglyphs to the Yellow Emperor. The Yellow Emperor was very happy. He immediately summoned the chiefs of Kyushu to let Cangjie teach them these words. Therefore, these hieroglyphs began to be used. In order to commemorate Cangjie's contribution to the creation of characters, the descendants called the place where nancangjie created characters in Xinzheng County, Henan Province as "Fenghuang Title calligraphy platform". In the Song Dynasty, a temple was built here, named "Fengtai Temple"

although all the above are legends and not enough evidence, their connotation is not without reason. That is, words come from pictures, and the earliest words are picture words. As for the production of characters, from the perspective of historical materialism, or from a realistic and objective analysis of the production of Chinese characters, it is not difficult to see that characters are an inevitable product of a certain stage of development of human society. They are gradually formed and evolved from the long-term production practice of primitive humans. It is impossible that they were invented and created by a single person who made the average price of products drop by nearly two-thirds. Perhaps Cangjie once made the earliest arrangement of the hazy picture characters in human history, which is unknown. As for the time when Cangjie wrote a book, that is, when characters were born, there are different opinions in history. A unified saying is that "Cangjie was the historian of the Yellow Emperor." Cangjie coined characters in the period of the Yellow Emperor in the 26th century BC. Archaeological and documentary records show that at least 4500 years ago, the Chinese character, the Chinese character, was born and matured

II. Early stereotyped characters - Oracle Bone Inscriptions since its emergence, Chinese characters have experienced a long development process, such as early pictorial characters, oracle bone inscriptions, ancient Chinese characters, seal characters, official script, regular script, running script, cursive script, and various printing fonts gradually derived to meet the printing requirements after the invention of printing. Among them, Oracle Bone characters are regarded as the earliest stereotyped characters in China

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